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Сообщество студентов Кировской ГМА

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Автор Тема: MEDICATION SUMMARIES  (Прочитано 11171 раз)

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MEDICATION SUMMARIES
« : Октябрь 29, 2011, 18:59:09 »
PENICILLINS
GENERIC AND BRAND NAMES
See complete list of generic and brand names in the Generic and Brand Name Directory, page 889

BASIC INFORMATION
Habit forming? No
Prescription needed? Yes
Available as generic? Yes
Drug class: Antibiotic (penicillin)

USES
Treatment of bacterial infections that are susceptible to penicillin, including lower respiratory tract infections, otitis media, sinusitis, skin and skin structure infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal disorders, ulcers, endo-carditis, pharyngitis. Different penicillins treat different kinds of infections.

DOSAGE & USAGE INFORMATION
How to take:
-   Tablet or capsule – Swallow with liquid on an empty stomach 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating. You may take amoxicillin, penicillin V, pivampicillin or pivmecillinam on a full stomach.
-   Chewable tablet – Chew or crush before swallowing.
-   Oral suspension – Measure each dose with an accurate measuring device (not a household teaspoon). Store according to instructions.
When to take:
Follow instructions on prescription label, or take as directed by doctor. The number of doses, the time between doses and the length of treatment will depend on the problem being treated.
If you forget a dose:
Take as soon as you remember, then continue regular schedule. If it is almost time for the next dose, wait for that dose (don’t double that dose).

OVERDOSE
Symptoms:
Severe diarrhea, nausea or vomiting.
WHAT TO DO:
Overdose unlikely to threaten life. If person takes much larger amount than prescibed, call doctor, poison control center or hospital emergency room for instructions.

What drug does:
Destroys susceptible bacteria. Does not kill viruses (e.g. colds or influenza), fingi or parasites.
Time lapse before drug works:
May be several days before medicine affects infection.
Don’t take with:
Any other medicine without consulting your doctor or pharmacist.

POSSIBLE ADVERSE REACTIONS OR SIDE EFFECTS
Symptoms                                                          What to do
Life-threatening:
Hives, rash, intense itching, shortness of            Seek emergency treatment immediately.
breath, faintness soon after a dose
(anephylaxis).
Common:
Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea (all mild);             Continue. Call doctor when convenient.
sore mouth or tongue; white patches in
mouth or on tongue; vaginal itching or
discharge; stomach pain.
Infrequent:
None expected.
Rare:
Unexplained bleeding or bruising,  weakness,     Discontinue. Call doctor right away.
sore throat, fever, severe abdominal cramps,
diarrhea (watery and severe), convulsions.

WARNINGS & PRECAUTIONS
Don’t take if:
You are allergic to penicillins or cephalosporins. A life-threatening reaction may occur.
Before you start, consult your doctor:
-   If you are allergic to any substance or drug.
-   If you have mononucleosis.
-   If you have congestive heart failure.
-   If you have high blood pressure or any bleeding disorder.
-   If you have cystic fibrosis.
-   If you have kidney disease or a stomach or intestinal disorder.
Over age 60:
No special problems expected.
Pregnancy:
Consult doctor. Risk category (see page xxiii).
Breast-feeding:
Drug passes into milk. Child may become sensitive to penicillins and have allergic reactions to penicillin drugs. Discuss risks and benefits with your doctor.
Infants & children:
No special problems expected.
Prolonged use:
-   You may become more susceptible to infections caused by germs not responsive to penicillins.
-   Talk to your doctor about need for follow-up medical examinations or laboratory studies.
Skin & sunlight:
No problems expected.
Driving, piloting or hazardous work:
Usually not dangerous. Most hazardous reactions likely to occur a few minutes after taking penicillin.
Discontinuing:
Don’t discontinue without doctor’s advice until you complete prescribed dose, even though symptoms diminish or disappear.
Others:
-   Urine sugar test for diabetes may show false positive result.
-   If your symptoms don’t improve within a few days (or if they worsen), call your doctor.
-   Don’t take medicines for diarrhea without your doctor’s approval.
-   Birth control pills may not be effective. Use additional birth control methods.

POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER DRUGS
GENERIC NAME OR DRUG CLASS                              COMBINED EFFECT
Chloramphenicol                                                               Decreased effect of both drugs.
Cholestyramine                                                                  May decrease penicillin effect.
Colestipol                                                                            May decrease penicillin effect.
Contraceptives, oral                                                           Impaired contraceptive efficiency.
Erythromycins                                                                    Decreased effect of both drugs.
Methotrexate                                                                      Increased risk of methotrexate toxicity.
Probenicid                                                                           Increased effect of all penicillins.
Sodium benzoate & sodium phenylacetate                      May reduce effect of sodium benzoate   
                                                                                              & sodium phenylacetate.
Sulfonamides                                                                       Decreased effect of both drugs.
Tetracyclines                                                                       Decreased effect of both drugs.

POSSIBLE INTERACTION WITH OTHER SUBSTANCES
INTERACTS WITH                                                      COMBINED EFFECT

Alcohol:                                                                      Occasional stomach irritation.
Beverages:                                                                  None expected.
Cocaine:                                                                      No proven problems.
Foods:
Acidic fruits or juices, aged cheese, wines,                 Decreased antibiotic effect.
Syrups (if taken with penicillin G).
Marijuana:                                                                 No proven problems.
Tobacco:                                                                     None expected.
Делай что должен, и будь что будет.

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