Bekhterev, Vladimir (b. Jan. 20 [Feb 1, New Style], 1857, Sorali, Vyatka [now Kirov], Russia--d. Dec. 24, 1927, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R.), Academician Bekhterev (to be) _________ a well-known Russian neurophysiologist and psychiatrist who (to study) _____________ the formations of the brain and (to investigate) _____________ conditioned reflexes.
Bekhterev (to receive) _________________ a doctorate from the Medical-Surgical Academy of St. Petersburg in 1881 and then (to study) ________________ abroad for four years. He (to return) ______________ to Russia in 1885 and (to become) _____________ professor of psychiatric diseases at the University of Kazan, where he (to establish) ____________________ the first laboratory of experimental psychology in Russia the next year. He (to become) ____________ professor of psychiatry at the Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg in 1893 and (to found) _______________ a psychoneurological institute there in 1907. He (to chair) ____________ the department of psychology and reflexology at the University of Petrograd (i.e., St. Petersburg) from 1918 until his death.
He (to be) ________a competitor of Ivan Pavlov. Bekhterev independently (to develop) ________________ a theory of conditioned reflexes. He (to study) ____________ both inherited and acquired reflexes in the laboratory. Bekhterev's most lasting work (to be) ______ his research on brain morphology and his original description of several nervous symptoms and illnesses. He (to discover) _________________ the superior vestibular nucleus, as well as several other previously unknown brain formations. He also (to describe) _____________ numbness of the spine (Bekhterev's disease) and new forms of spondylitis and other diseases.
Bekhterev (to found) _____________the Nevrologichesky Vestnik ("Neurology Journal"), the first Russian journal on nervous diseases, in 1896. Among his more significant writings (to be) _____ Conduction Paths in the Brain and Spinal Cord (1882; 2nd ed., 1896) and Objective Psychology (1907).
Academician Alexander N. Bakulev (1890-1967) (to be born) ______________ in the village of Bakuly, the district of Slobodskoy, Vyatka region on December 8, 1890. He (to graduate) ________________ from a Vyatka gymnasium with honors in 1811, then he (to study) ______________at Saratov University and (to graduate) ________________ from it with honors in 1918. He (to admit) _____________________ to the surgery department of Moscow Medical University in 1926. Alexandr N. Bakulev (to create) ___________________ hundreds of scientific works on thoracic surgery. He (to found) _________________________ the USSR Research Institute of Thoracic Surgery. Bakulev (to award) __________________ the highest state prize for outstanding accomplishments in cardiosurgery, and (to elect) ______________________ Academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences in 1948 and Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1958, President of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. He (to award) ______ also __________________ many orders and the highest title of the Hero of Socialist Labor. Bakulev (to die) _________on March 31, 1967.
Valentin A. Zhuravlev, M.D., (to be) _______the founder of Kirov State Medical Academy, the Russian Federation State Prize Winner of 1993 for achievements in hepatic surgery, St. Andrey Pervozvanny Prize Winner, Associate Member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, a member of many international societies and associations, Honorary Member of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Poland, Academician of the European-Asian Academy of Medical Sciences, Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Honorary Citizen of the City of Kirov, Honorary Citizen of Kirov Region, the Director of Kirov Interregional Center of Liver and Bile Duct Surgery of the Health and Social Development Ministry of the Russian Federation. He (to create) _______________over 500 monographs, text-books on liver surgery, methodological books and articles. Professor Valentin A. Zhuravlev (to have) ____________the titles of "Distinguished Scientist of the Russian Federation”, "Distinguished Health Care Professional of the Russian Federation", "Distinguished Physician of the Russian Federation". Professor Valentin A. Zhuravlev (to include) _____________________in the Sixth Edition of “INTERNATIONAL DIRECTORY OF DISTINGUISHED LEADERSHIP”. He (to award) ________________the Order of the Red Banner of Labor and the Medal for Distinction in Labor. He (to elect) ________________________ Honorary Rector of Kirov State Medical Academy.